Ok, so when you first add add a product to a Catalog.. the name of that product defaults to the Direct Fulfillment lab's product name (or the name you set in the Store / Products section if you were creating Self Fulfillment products).
However, you also have the option within a Catalog to apply a Custom Label and Custom Description for each product and these labels will be displayed in the Shopping Cart for you.
You would do this by hitting the Show Details button to the right of each product row on your Catalog edit page.
So if there's a discrepancy between the product label you see in your Shopping Cart and the default product name that you expected to see.. make sure you hit the Show Details button to double check that these two fields match!
If they don't match, then you can correct this by copying the default Product Name (on the first line of the product row) and pasting it back into the Custom Label field under the Show Details section.
Checkout the 1:50sec mark of this Kick Start video for a little extra info on this.